Integrate structure and services




Aesculus hypocsatanum

Veins in this Horse Chestnut leaf provide structure as well as circulation. Each vein contains tubes of both xylem - bringing water and minerals up from the roots and phloem - transporting back down the products of photosynthesis. The palm branch below makes use of a composite structure with stiff material surrounding a lightwigth spongy core. The cross section of the branch curls around forming a tube to take water from the leaf down to the ground.

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